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Application of Activated Carbon Fiber in Volatile Organic Waste Gas Treatment

Recognition of activated carbon fiber

Activated carbon fiber, also known as fibrous activated carbon, is the third generation of efficient activated adsorption materials and environmental engineering materials developed after powdered and granulated activated carbon in the 1960s. More than 50% of its carbon atoms are located on the inner and outer surfaces, constructing a unique adsorption structure, which is called surface solid. It is made from carbonized and activated precursor fibers. Activated carbon fiber is composed of three elements: C, H, O, and its main component is carbon. Carbon atoms exist in a form similar to graphite microcrystalline layer and account for about 60% of the total. Oxygen-containing functional groups such as hydroxyl and ether groups account for about 25%, carbonyl, carboxyl, ester groups account for about 10%, and there are other forms of functional groups and metals. The basic properties of activated carbon fibers depend on the physical and chemical properties of their precursors, and their applications in various fields are determined by their basic properties. Compared with traditional carbon adsorbents, activated carbon fibers have unique chemical and physical structures, and thus have superior adsorption and desorption properties that cannot be compared by the latter, including high carbon content, large specific surface area, abundant and narrow distribution of micropores, fast adsorption rate, large adsorption capacity, and easy regeneration.

The application of activated carbon fiber in the treatment of volatile organic waste 

With the wide application of organic chemical products in industry, more and more organic pollutants enter the atmosphere, mainly low-boiling-point and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). They are mainly emitted from waste gases discharged from the petrochemical industry; organic solvents discharged from the paper, paint, coating, mining, and textile industries. Among them, the coating industry is a heavily polluted industry, and paint is the first factor that plays a leading role. Most of the paints used in coating operations are solvent-based paints, with a solvent content of about 60%. This part of the solvent is finally released into the working environment and the atmosphere, which not only wastes resources, but also harms the health of workers and the atmosphere. About 70% of the solvent volatilizes during the spraying and leveling stage of workers, and is discharged through the exhaust system; about 30% of the solvents are discharged through the exhaust system of the curing equipment before the coating of the workpiece solidifies in the early stage.

Looking at the current technology for the treatment of such harmful gases, one is the purification technology using incineration and catalytic combustion, and the other is the recycling technology after adsorption. From the perspective of meeting the requirements of sustainable development, adsorption method is more applicable. Because activated carbon fibers have excellent adsorption and desorption properties, they can effectively remove and recover low-boiling-point compounds, fatty compounds, and VOCs that are harmful to human health and produced in production. Therefore, activated carbon fibers play a role in replacing activated carbon particles and powder in the treatment of organic waste gases.

Application of Activated Carbon Fiber in Volatile Organic Waste Gas Treatment